Brazil is a country with high solar incidence. Here, sunlight hits the earth over two thousand hours a year. The Northeast Region, for example, has great potential for photovoltaic power generation, as it receives an average daily incidence of light equivalent to 4.5 to 6 kWh.
A quality system starts from around R $ 15,000.00, with all costs included, according to Blue Sol Solar Energy. However, the best-selling systems, as they are closer to the customers' energy consumption standard, have an average investment of R $ 30,000.00 for a comfortable generation of energy for a light bill of approximately R $ 400,00 (value may vary by region and by distributor).
The modules have an estimated service life of 25 to 30 years for acceptable power generation. In fact, everyone in the market today has a 25-year factory warranty to generate at least 80% of its potential. The inverters, in turn, have an estimated life of between 12 and 15 years, requiring their replacement in half the duration of a system.
Today a solar batteries for home pays for between 4 and 6 years, so if we consider its estimated 30 years of operation, we will have between 24 and 26 years of pure economy! Today solar is already more profitable than many other investments, such as the famous savings account, bringing a higher return to the investor.
Any residence can install the system in theory.In fact, the house needs a useful space to accommodate about 18m² of photovoltaic modules installation without the need for constant obstruction and service by the power utility.
Energy is generated by sunlight with photovoltaic modules in daytime. It is taken to the inverter, which transforms this energy into the one we use in our appliances, and throws it into our power grid. Therefore, these two parts (modules and inverter) are the heart of the system. The energy produced in this way is rarely consumed by the electrical appliances, lamps and machines in the field. Your earnings will be sent to the distributor's network, which provides credit to the consumer to collect your utility bill. When night comes, and the generation of energy is interrupted by the lack of sunlight, we use these credits generated during the day to reduce the energy consumed during the period.
The systems have their power calculated so that the customer pays only the availability fee. This credit offsetting is done automatically at the time of issuance of the electricity bill. Therefore, technically there is no "storage" of energy. The surplus is credited to the distributor and converted into savings for the system owner.
For this, surplus energy generated during the day would need to be stored in batteries for use at night. However, today it is very difficult to talk about residential batteries. Batteries that exist today for commercial use have a lifespan of approximately three years compared to the 25 years of a photovoltaic system. Also, there is no proper battery disposal policy. Therefore, Energy autonomy will eventually cost more and the maintenance costs are high.
In the more advanced solar PV market, batteries have been developed for residential use, but we still have nothing on the commercial scale. Therefore, the proposed solution happens to be a solution to the grid system, in which instead of storing energy, it is returned to the grid.
Today the Brazilian energy matrix is mostly supported by hydroelectric and thermoelectric generators, which impact the environment, have a high cost of generation and involve many energy losses. The solar energy storage system market in Brazil has great potential for development in future.